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Atal Bihari Vajpayee Hindustani pronunciation: ; 25 December 1924 — 16 August 2018 was an Indian politician who served three terms as the : first for a term of 13 days in 1996, then for a period of 13 months from 1998 to 1999, and finally, for a full term from 1999 to 2004. A member of the BJP , he was the first Indian prime minister who was not a member of the party to have served a full five-year term in office. He served as the for , Uttar Pradesh until 2009 when he retired from active politics due to health concerns. Vajpayee was among the founding members of the BJS , of which he was the president from 1968 to 1972. The BJS merged with several other parties to form the , which won the. Vajpayee became the in the cabinet of Prime Minister. He resigned in 1979, and the Janata alliance collapsed soon after. The erstwhile members of the BJS formed the BJP in 1980, with Vajpayee as its first president. During his tenure as prime minister, India carried out the nuclear tests in 1998. Vajpayee sought to improve diplomatic relations with Pakistan, by bus to meet with Prime Minister. After the with Pakistan, he sought to restore relations through engaging with President , inviting him to India for a summit at. He was conferred India's highest civilian honour, the , by the , in 2015. The administration of declared in 2014 that Vajpayee's birthday, 25 December, would be marked as. He died on 16 August 2018 due to age-related illness. Vajpayee was born to Krishna Devi and Krishna Bihari Vajpayee on 25 December 1924 in. His grandfather, Pandit Shyam Lal Vajpayee, had migrated to , Gwalior from his ancestral village of. His father, Krishna Bihari Vajpayee, was a school teacher in his hometown. Vajpayee did his schooling at the Saraswati Shishu Mandir in Gwalior. In 1934, Atal Bihari was admitted to AVM School Distt after his father joined as headmaster. He spoke about his 'lifechanging moment' at a public rally on the 1996 Lok Sabha election trail. He subsequently attended Gwalior's Victoria College now Laxmi Bai College and graduated with distinction in , English and. He completed his post-graduation with an in Political Science from , and was awarded a first-class degree. His activism started with Arya Kumar Sabha of Gwalior, the youth wing of the , of which he became the general secretary in 1944. He also joined the RSS as a , or volunteer, in 1939. Influenced by , he attended the Officers Training Camp of the RSS during 1940—44 and became a pracharak, RSS terminology for a full-time worker, in 1947. He gave up studying law due to the partition riots. He was sent as a vistarak, a probationary pracharak, to Uttar Pradesh and quickly began working for the newspapers of , Rashtradharma a Hindi monthly , a Hindi weekly and the dailies Swadesh and Veer Arjun. By 1942, at the age of 16 years, Vajpayee became an active member of the. In August 1942, he and his elder brother Prem were arrested for 24 days during the. He was released after giving a written undertaking stating that while he was a part of the crowd, he did not participate in the militant events in Bateshwar on 27 August 1942. In 1951, Vajpayee was seconded by the RSS, along with , to work for the newly formed , a Hindu right-wing political party associated with the RSS. He was appointed as a national secretary of the party in charge of the Northern region, based in Delhi. He soon became a follower and aide of party leader. In 1954, Vajpayee was with Mukherjee when the latter went on a in to protest the perceived inferior treatment of non-Kashmiri Indian visitors to the state. In the , Vajpayee contested elections to the , the lower house of. He lost to in , but was elected from. In the Lok Sabha his oratorial skills so impressed Prime Minister that he predicted that Vajpayee would someday become the Prime Minister of India. Vajpayee's oratorial skills won him the reputation of being the most eloquent defender of the Jana Sangh's policies. After the death of , the leadership of the Jana Sangh passed to Vajpayee. He became the national president of the Jana Sangh in 1968, running the party along with , , and. Foreign Minister Vajpayee far right and Prime Minister third from right, front row with US President during his 1978 visit to India. In 1975, Vajpayee was arrested along with several other opposition leaders during the imposed by Prime Minister of the party. Initially interned in , Vajpayee appealed his imprisonment on the grounds of bad health, and was moved to a hospital in Delhi. Gandhi ended the state of emergency in 1977. A coalition of parties, including the BJS, came together to form the , which won the. Vajpayee served as the , or foreign minister, in Desai's cabinet. As foreign minister, Vajpayee became the first person in 1977 to deliver a speech to the in. Vajpayee resigned from his post in 1979. The Janata Party collapsed soon after Desai resigned as Prime Minister in 1979. The erstwhile members of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh came together to form the BJP in 1980, with Vajpayee as its first President. The 1984 general elections were held in the wake of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's assassination by her Sikh bodyguards. While he had won the 1977 and the 1980 elections from New Delhi, Vajpayee shifted to his home town Gwalior for the election. Vidya Razdan was initially tipped to be the Congress I candidate. Instead, , scion of the , was brought in on the last day of filing nominations. Vajpayee lost to Scindia, managing to secure only 29% of the votes. Under Vajpayee, the BJP moderated the Hindu-nationalist position of the Jana Sangh, emphasising its connection to the Janata Party and expressing support for. The ideological shift did not bring it success: Gandhi's assassination generated sympathy for the Congress, leading to a massive victory at the polls. The BJP won only two seats in parliament. Vajpayee offered to quit as party president following BJP's dismal performance in the election, but stayed in the post until 1986. He was elected to the Rajya Sabha in 1986 from Madhya Pradesh, and was briefly the leader of the BJP in parliament. In 1986 took office as president of the BJP. Under him, the BJP returned to a policy of hardline Hindu nationalism. It became the political voice of the , which sought to build a temple dedicated to the Hindu deity in. The temple would be built at a site believed to be the birthplace of Rama after demolishing a 16th-century mosque, called the , which then stood there. The strategy paid off for the BJP; it won 86 seats in the Lok Sabha in the , making its support crucial to the government of. In December 1992, a group of religious volunteers led by members of the BJP, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh RSS and the Vishwa Hindu Parishad VHP , tore down the mosque. The BJP's role in the movement led to major political gains. See also: During a BJP conference in Mumbai in November 1995, BJP President Advani declared that Vajpayee would be the party's Prime Ministerial candidate in the forthcoming elections. Vajpayee himself was reported to be unhappy with the announcement, responding by saying that the party needed to win the election first. The BJP became the single largest party in parliament in the , helped by religious polarisation across the country as a result of the demolition of the Babri Masjid. Indian president invited Vajpayee to form the government. Vajpayee was sworn in as the 10th Prime Minister of India, but the BJP failed to muster a majority among members of the Lok Sabha. Vajpayee resigned after 13 days when it became clear that he did not have enough support to form a government. Second term: 1998—1999 See also: After the fall of the two governments between 1996 and 1998, the Lok Sabha was dissolved and fresh elections were held. The again put the BJP ahead of others. A number of political parties joined the BJP to form the NDA , and Vajpayee was sworn in as the Prime Minister. The coalition was an uneasy one, as apart from the , none of the other parties espoused the BJP's Hindu-nationalist ideology. Vajpayee has been credited for managing this coalition successfully, while facing ideological pressure from the hardline wing of the party and from the RSS. Vajpayee's government lasted 13 months until mid-1999 when the AIADMK under withdrew its support. The government lost the ensuing vote of confidence motion in the Lok Sabha by a single vote on 17 April 1999. As the opposition was unable to come up with the numbers to form the new government, the Lok Sabha was again dissolved and fresh elections were held. Nuclear tests See also: In May 1998, India conducted in the desert in , 24 years after its first nuclear test in 1974. Two weeks later, Pakistan responded with its own nuclear tests making it the newest nation with declared nuclear capability. While some nations, such as France, endorsed India's right to defensive nuclear power, others including the United States, Canada, Japan, Britain and the imposed sanctions on information, resources and technology to India. In spite of intense international criticism and steady decline in foreign investment and trade, the nuclear tests were popular domestically. In effect, the international sanctions imposed failed to sway India from weaponising its nuclear capability. US sanctions against India and Pakistan were eventually lifted after just six months. Lahore summit In late 1998 and early 1999, Vajpayee began a push for a full-scale diplomatic peace process with Pakistan. With the historic inauguration of the Delhi-Lahore bus service in February 1999, Vajpayee initiated a new peace process aimed towards permanently resolving the Kashmir dispute and other conflicts with Pakistan. The resultant espoused a commitment to dialogue, expanded trade relations and mutual friendship and envisaged a goal of denuclearised South Asia. This eased the tension created by the 1998 nuclear tests, not only within the two nations but also in South Asia and the rest of the world. AIADMK's withdrawal from coalition The Vajpayee-led government was faced with two crises in mid-1999. However, in May 1999, the AIADMK did pull the plug on the NDA, and the Vajpayee administration was reduced to a caretaker status pending. Kargil War Further information: In May 1999 some Kashmiri shepherds discovered the presence of militants and non-uniformed Pakistani soldiers many with official identifications and 's custom weaponry in the Kashmir Valley, where they had taken control of border hilltops and unmanned border posts. The incursion was centred around the town of , but also included the and sectors and artillery exchanges at the. The Indian army responded with Operation Vijay, which launched on 26 May 1999. This saw the Indian military fighting thousands of militants and soldiers in the midst of heavy artillery shelling and while facing extremely cold weather, snow and treacherous terrain at the high altitude. Over 500 Indian soldiers were killed in the three-month-long Kargil War, and it is estimated around 600-4,000 Pakistani militants and soldiers died as well. India pushed back the Pakistani militants and soldiers. Almost 70% of the territory was recaptured by India. After Pakistan suffered heavy losses, and with both the United States and China refusing to condone the incursion or threaten India to stop its military operations, General was recalcitrant and asked the remaining militants to stop and withdraw to positions along the LoC. The militants were not willing to accept orders from Sharif but the soldiers withdrew. The militants were killed by the army or forced to withdraw in skirmishes which went beyond the announcement of withdrawal by Pakistan. Third term: 1999—2004 See also: 1999—2002 In the , the BJP-led NDA won 303 seats out of the 543 seats in the Lok Sabha, in the aftermath of the Kargil operations, thereby securing a comfortable and stable majority. On 13 October 1999, Vajpayee took oath as Prime Minister of India for the third time. A national crisis emerged in December 1999, when from to New Delhi was hijacked by five terrorists and flown to -ruled Afghanistan. The hijackers made several demands including the release of certain terrorists like from prison. Under extreme pressure, the government ultimately caved in. Vajpayee meeting in the in 2001 In March 2000, , the President of the United States, paid a state visit to India. This was the first state visit to India by a U. President in 22 years since President Jimmy Carter's visit in 1978. President Clinton's visit was hailed as a significant milestone in relations between the two nations. Vajpayee and Clinton had wide-ranging discussions on bilateral, regional and international developments. The visit led to expansion in trade and economic ties between India and the United States. A vision document on the future course of Indo-U. Domestically, the BJP-led government was under constant pressure from its ideological mentor, the RSS, and the hard-line VHP to enact the agenda. But owing to its dependence on coalition support, it was impossible for the BJP to push items like building the Ram Janmabhoomi temple in Ayodhya, repealing which gave a special status to the state of Kashmir, or enacting a applicable to adherents of all religions. On 17 January 2000, there were reports of the RSS and some BJP hard-liners threatening to restart the Jan Sangh, the precursor to the BJP, because of their discontent over Vajpayee's rule. Former president of the Jan Sangh Balraj Madhok had written a letter to the then-RSS chief for support. The BJP was, however, accused of saffronising the official state education curriculum and apparatus, saffron being the colour of the RSS flag of the RSS, and a symbol of the Hindu nationalism movement. Advani and Human Resource Development Minister were indicted in the 1992 case for inciting a mob of activists. Vajpayee himself came under public scrutiny owing to his controversial speech one day prior to the mosque demolition. Vajpayee with Russian president These years were accompanied by infighting in the administration and confusion regarding the direction of government. Vajpayee's weakening health was also a subject of public interest, and he underwent a major knee-replacement surgery at the in to relieve intense pressure upon his legs. In March 2001, the group released a sting operation video named which showed BJP president , senior army officers and NDA members accepting bribes from journalists posing as agents and businessmen. The Defence Minister was forced to resign following the involving the botched supplies of coffins for the soldiers killed in Kargil, and the findings of an inquiry commission that the government could have prevented the Kargil invasion. Vajpayee initiated talks with Pakistan, and invited Pakistani President to for a joint summit, the. President Musharraf was believed in India to be the principal architect of the Kargil War. By accepting him as the , Vajpayee chose to move forward. But after three days of much fanfare, which included Musharraf visiting his birthplace in Delhi, the summit failed to achieve a breakthrough as President Musharraf declined to leave aside the issue of Kashmir. The terrorists managed to kill several security guards, but the building was sealed off swiftly and security forces cornered and killed the men who were later proven to be Pakistan nationals. Vajpayee ordered Indian troops to mobilise for war, leading to an estimated 500,000 to 750,000 Indian soldiers positioned along the international border between India and Pakistan. Pakistan responded by mobilising its own troops along the border. A terrorist attack on an army garrison in Kashmir in May 2002 further escalated the situation. As the threat of war between two nuclear capable countries, and the consequent possibility of a nuclear exchange, loomed large, international diplomatic mediation focused on defusing the situation. In October 2002, both India and Pakistan announced that they would withdraw their troops from the border. The Vajpayee administration brought in the in 2002. The act was aimed at curbing terrorist threats by strengthening powers of government authorities to investigate and act against suspects. It was passed in a joint session of the parliament, amidst concerns that the law would be misused. But the biggest political disaster hit his government between December 2001 and March 2002: the VHP held the Government hostage in a major standoff in over the. At the 10th anniversary of the destruction of the , the VHP wanted to perform a shila daan, or a ceremony laying the foundation stone of the cherished temple at the disputed site. Thousands of VHP activists amassed and threatened to overrun the site and forcibly perform the shila daan. A grave threat of not only communal violence, but an outright breakdown of law and order owing to the defiance of the government by a religious organisation hung over the nation. But to the relief of Vajpayee, the incident ended peacefully with a symbolic handover of a stone at a different location 1 km away from the disputed site. A scuffle broke out between Hindu activists and Muslim residents, and amidst uncertain circumstance, the train was set on fire leading to the deaths of 59 people. The charred bodies of the victims were displayed in public in the city of , and the called for a statewide strike in Gujarat. These decisions stoked anti-Muslim sentiments. Blaming Muslims for the deaths, rampaging Hindu mobs killed thousands of Muslim men and women, destroying Muslim homes and places of worship. The violence raged for more than two months, and more than 1,000 people died. Gujarat was being ruled by a BJP government, with as the chief minister. The state government was criticised for mishandling the situation. It was accused of doing little to stop the violence, and even being complicit in encouraging it. Vajpayee reportedly wanted to remove Modi, but was eventually prevailed upon by party members to not act against him. He traveled to Gujarat, visiting Godhra, and Ahmedabad, the site of the most violent riots. He announced financial aid for victims, and urged an end to the violence. While he condemned the violence, he did not chastise Modi directly in public. When asked as to what would be his message to the chief minister in the event of the riots having taking place, Vajpayee responded that Modi must follow raj dharma, Hindi for ethical governance. Vajpayee was accused of doing nothing to stop the violence, and later admitted mistakes in handling the events. After the BJP's defeat in the 2004 general elections, Vajpayee admitted that not removing Modi had been a mistake. The country's GDP growth exceeded 7% every year from 2003 to 2007, following three years of sub-5% growth. Increasing foreign investment, modernisation of public and industrial infrastructure, the creation of jobs, a rising high-tech and IT industry and urban modernisation and expansion improved the nation's international image. Good crop harvests and strong industrial expansion also helped the economy. The government reformed the tax system, increased the pace of reforms and pro-business initiatives, major irrigation and housing schemes and so on. The political energies of the BJP shifted to the rising urban middle-class and young people, who were positive and enthusiastic about the major economic expansion and future of the country. He faced stiff opposition from other equally strong organisations in the such as the and the. However, he continued with his aggressive economic reform policy. In May 2003, he announced before the parliament that he would make one last effort to achieve peace with Pakistan. The announcement ended a period of 16 months, following the 2001 attack on the Indian parliament, during which India had severed diplomatic ties with Pakistan. Although diplomatic relations did not pick up immediately, visits were exchanged by high-level officials and the military standoff ended. The Pakistani President and Pakistani politicians, civil and religious leaders hailed this initiative as did the leaders of the United States, Europe and much of the world. In July 2003, Prime Minister Vajpayee visited China, and met with various Chinese leaders. He recognised as a part of China, which was welcomed by the Chinese leadership, and which, in the following year, recognised , as part of India. Policies Vajpayee's government introduced many domestic economic and infrastructural reforms, including encouraging the private sector and foreign investments, reducing governmental waste, encouraging research and development and privatisation of some government owned corporations. Among Vajpayee's projects were the and. In 2001, the Vajpayee government launched the campaign, aimed at improving the quality of education in primary and secondary schools. In 2003, news reports suggested a tussle within the BJP with regard to sharing of leadership between Vajpayee and deputy prime LK Advani. BJP president Venkaiah Naidu had suggested that Advani must lead the party politically at the 2004 general elections, referring to Vajpayee as vikas purush, Hindi for development man, and Advani as loh purush, iron man. When Vajpayee subsequently threatened retirement, Naidu backtracked announcing that the party would contest the elections under the twin leadership of Vajpayee and Advani. The NDA was widely expected to retain power after the. It announced elections six months ahead of schedule, hoping to capitalise on economic growth, and Vajpayee's peace initiative with Pakistan. The was dissolved before the completion of its term. The BJP hoped to capitalise on a perceived 'feel-good factor' and BJP's recent successes in the Assembly elections in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and. However, the BJP could only win 138 seats in the 543-seat parliament, with several prominent cabinet ministers being defeated. The NDA coalition won 185 seats. The Indian National Congress, led by , emerged as the single largest party, wining 145 seats in the election. The Congress and its allies, comprising many smaller parties, formed the , accounting for 220 seats in the parliament. Vajpayee resigned as Prime Minister. The UPA, with the outside support of communist parties, formed the next government with as the prime minister. In December 2005, Vajpayee announced his retirement from active politics, declaring that he would not contest in the next general election. Vajpayee was hospitalised at AIIMS for a chest infection and fever on 6 February 2009. He was put on ventilator support as his condition worsened but he eventually recuperated and was later discharged. Unable to participate in the campaign for the due to his poor health, he wrote a letter urging voters to back the BJP. His protege was able to retain the seat in that election even though the NDA suffered electoral reverses all over the country. It was speculated that Vajpayee's non-partisan appeal contributed to Lalji's success in Lucknow in contrast to that BJP's poor performance elsewhere in. Vajpayee remained a bachelor his entire life. He adopted and raised Namita Bhattacharya as his own child, the daughter of longtime friend Rajkumari Kaul and BN Kaul. His adopted family lived with him. Unlike purist who shun meat and alcohol, Vajpayee was known to be fond of whisky and meat. He was a noted poet, writing in Hindi. His published works include Kaidi kavirai ki kundalian, a collection of poems written when he was imprisoned during the 1975—77 emergency, and Amar aag hai. It is not the defeated soldier's drumbeat of despair, but the fighting warrior's will to win. It is not the despirited voice of dejection but the stirring shout of victory. Vajpayee suffered a in 2009 which impaired his speech. His health had been a major source of concern; reports said he was confined to a wheelchair and failed to recognise people. He also suffered from and long-term. For many years, he had not attended any public engagements and rarely ventured out of the house, except for checkups at the. On 11 June 2018, Vajpayee was admitted to AIIMS in critical condition following a kidney infection. He was officially declared dead there at 5:05 pm on 16 August 2018 at the age of 93. However some sources claim that he had passed away on the previous day. On the morning of 17 August, Vajpayee's body draped with the Indian flag was taken to the Bharatiya Janata Party headquarters where party workers paid their tributes until 1 p. Later that afternoon at 4 p. Thousands of people and many dignitaries attended his funeral procession including Prime Minister and President. On 19 August, his ashes were immersed in at by his daughter Namita. Reactions and tributes India reacted to Vajpayee's death with grief and thousands of tributes poured in through social media platforms. Thousands of people paid their respects during his funeral procession. A seven-day state mourning was announced by the central government throughout India. The national flag flew half-mast during this period. His Excellency Vajpayee visited Japan in 2001 as the then-Prime Minister and made significant contributions to the friendship between our two countries as a good friend of Japan. During the in , PM announced that the cyber tower towards which Vajpayee contributed to be set up in Mauritius would be henceforth named as Atal Bihari Vajpayee tower. Zafar was among the foreign dignitaries who attended Vajpayee's funeral in New Delhi. Former Pakistani president mourned the demise of former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, calling him a great man. He said that Vajpayee's demise was a great loss for both India as well as Pakistan. He will be remembered as a politician who made a major personal contribution to the friendly relations and privileged strategic partnership between our countries. Former Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee was a visionary leader and an ardent defender of democracy. Vajpayee authored several works of both and. Some of his major publications are listed below. In addition to these, various collections were made of his speeches, articles, and slogans. Some of these poems were set to music by for his album Samvedna. 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Retrieved 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018. The New York Times. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018. Archived from on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018. The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 18 August 2018. The New York Times. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 25 July 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2017. The Times of India. Retrieved 16 August 2018. The New York Times. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. The Times of India. Retrieved 27 July 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2017. The New York Times. Retrieved 16 August 2018. The Hindu — via www. Retrieved 12 June 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. The Times of India. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. The Times of India. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2018. The Times of India. Retrieved 17 August 2018. Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, selected speeches 2000-2002. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. Ministry of External Affairs, External Publicity Division. Narayana Madhava Saṃskaraṇa 1 ed. Naī Dillī: Prabhāta Prakāśana. Kucha lekha, kucha bhāshaṇa. Nayī Dillī: Kitāba Ghara. India's Perspectives on ASEAN and the Asia-Pacific Region. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies ISEAS. Na dainyaṃ na palāyanam. Nayī Dillī: Kitāba Ghara. Nayi Chunouti : Naya Avasar in Hindi. Nayī Dillī: Kitāba Ghara. Retrieved 17 August 2018. Kyā khoyā kyā pāyā : Aṭala Vihārī Vājapeyī, vyaktitva aura kavitāeṃ. Dillī: Rājapāla eṇḍa Sanza. Shah, Arvind Poet Ed. New Delhi: Prabhat Prakashan. Bateshwar to Prime Minister House — An Interesting Description of Different Aspects of Atalji's. New Era in the Indian Polity, A Study of Atal Bihari Vajpayee and the BJP. Atal Bihari Vajpayee: The man India needs : the most appropriate leader for the twentyfirst century. Poet politician Atal Bihari Vajpayee: A biography. India Under Atal Behari Vajpayee: The BJP Era. Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee: Commitment to power. Atal Behari Vajpayee: The arch of India. Mandate for political transition: Reemergence of Vaypayee. 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