"LitUK" - Views: 3,459 · Hits: 3,459 - Type: Public

	- Early Britain
		○ Stone Age, 10,000 yrs ago, 1st people hunter-gatherers, land bridge gone
		○ Farmers 6,000 years ago (from s/e Europe) - houses, tombs, monuments
			§ Stonehenge (Wiltshire) 
			§ Skara Brae (Orkney, Scottish cost, best preserved in N. Europe)
		○ Bronze Age, 4,000 yrs ago - roundhouses, barrow burial, metalworkers
		○ Iron Age - weapons and tools (of iron) - larger settlements / hill fort 
			§ e.g. Maiden Castle (Dorset) - most farmers, craft or warriors -- Celtic Language, first coins minted in Britain (inscr with Iron Age Kings)
		○ Romans
			§ 55 BC, Caesar led Roman invasion, unsuccessful until AD43 Claudius invasion, defended by Boudicca (quen of Iceni, statue on Westminster br.), 
			§ Some Scotland (ancestors Picts) never conquered (north of Hadrian Wall)
			§ 3rd/4th century AD first Chrstians, 
		○ Anglo-Saxons
			§ Romans left in 410 AD, Britain invaded by Jutes, Angles, Saxons - language basis of modern English, A-S established by 600, one king burried at Sutton Hoo (Suffolk) with treasure, armour, ship, covered by mound of earth
			§ Parts of west Britain (Wales/Scotland) remained free of A-S rule
			§ A-S not Christians at first but missionaries came (e.g. St Patrick, patron of Ireland, and St Columba, founded monastery island of Iona)
			§ St Augustine led misnr. From Rome to south and was first Archbishop of Canterbury
		○ Vikings
			§ Came from Denmark/Norway to rain UK in 789
			§ Vikings defeated by A-S under King Alfred the Great 
			§ Some invaders stayed in E, N (the Danelaw, Grimsby, Scunthorpe from Viking lang)
			§ Short period of Danish kings (1st Cnut/Canute)
			§ Scotland formed under King Kenneth MacAlpin to defend against Vik
		○ Norman Conquest 
			§ 1066 Battle of Hastings / Bayeux Tapestry in France
			§ William, Duke of Normandy aka William The Conqueror, defeated A-S King Harold
			§ Last successful foreign invasion - led to changes in govt/social
			§ Norman French, lang of ruling class, influenced Eng
			§ Normans initially conquered Wales but lost territory, never invaded Scotland
			§ Domesday Book, ordered by William of list of towns, who lives, owns land, what animals
	- Middle Ages, aka Medieval Period
		○ From Norman Conquest (1066) to 1485, almost constant war
		○ England kings fought with Welsh/Scottish/Irish for land 
		○ 1284 King Edward I, Statute of Rhuddlan, annexed Wales, build castles Conwy, Caernarvon
		○ Middle of 15th cty last Welsh rebellion defeated
		○ 1314 the Scottish (led by Robert the Bruce) defeated Engl at Battle of Bannockburn, remained undefeated
		○ At begg of M/E Ireland was indepdendent, English troops went to help Irish king , remained to build own settlement
		○ By 1200 english ruled area The Pale near Dublin
		○ Crusades - Eur Christ. Fought for holy land, 
		○ Hundred Yrs War (116 yrs) English/French kings incl Batle of Agincourt (1415, King Henry V beat larger French army)
		○ English left France in 1450s
		○ Black Death, 1348, (1/3) population died in England
			§ Feudalism, landowners had to send men to servr in army
			§ North scotland/ireland land owned by members of "clans"
			§ Led to labour shortage, peasants demanded more from landowner/gentry, new middle social class, move to towns
		○ King's council of advisers (nobleman, Church) -> Parliament
		○ Few limits on kings power until 1215, King John agree to Magna Carta, even king subject to law, restricted taxes and law change
		○ House of Lords - nobility, great landowners, bishops
		○ House of Commons - knights (smaller landowners), wealthy people from towns/city elected by small set of population
		○ Scotland similar - 3 houses/estates (Lords, Commons, Clergy)
		○ England - Common Law (precendence), Scotland Law Codified
		○ Norman French (king, nobles, park, beauty, demand ) combined with Anglo-Saxon (peasants, apple, cow, summer, ask) -> English
		○ 1400 Geoffrey Chaucer / Canterbury Tales, printed by William Caxton 
		○ Scotland many spoke Gaelic and Scots langauge developed
		○ Scots poet - John Barbour - The Bruce about Battle of Bannockburn
		○ M/E buildings - Windsor, Edinburgh, Lincoln Cathedral, York Minister
		○ Export wool, french weavers, germany engineers, italian glass, dutch canal builder 
		○ 1455 Wars of the Roses, civil war in England b/w House of Lancaster (red rose) and House of York (white rose), ended in 1485 Battle of Bosworth Field
			§ King Richard III (York) killed by Henry Tudor (Lancaster) -> King Henry VII who married his niece (Elizabeth of York) and united the two families. House of Tudor - red rose w/ white rose inside
	- Tudors & Stuarts
		○ Henry VII strengthened central admin, reduced power of nobles, built up financial rsvs, son Henry VIII continued policy
		○ Henry VIII broke away from Church of Rome, married 6 times
			§ Catherine of Aragon (Spanish) - only one child Mary survived
			§ Anne Boleyn (English), daughter Elizabeth, executed at Tower of London for adultery
			§ Jane Seymour - gave son Edward but died after birth
			§ Anne of Cleves (German princess) - married for politics, soon divorced
			§ Catherine Howard - cousin of Anne Bolelyn, accused adultery and executed
			§ Catherine Parr - widow, survived Henry, married again then died
		○ Pope refused divorce so Henry VIII started Church of England (bishops appont. By king)
		○ Reformation - movement against authority of pope and RCC
		○ Protestants formed own churches, in their language - Eng/Wal/Scot strength in 16th century
		○ Irish rebelled against Protestantism 
		○ Wales formally united w/ England during Henry VIII w/ Act for the Govt of Wales
		○ Henry VIII's son Edward VI strongly protestant -> Book of Common Prayer written - died at 15 (after 6 years of rule), half sister Mary became queen who was a devout Catholic and prosecuted protestants (Bloody Mary), also died after short reign and followed by half sister Elizabeth (Queen Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII / Boleyn)who was protestant and reestablished Church of England which everyone had to attend
		○ Elizabeth / Elizabethan Period very popular after 1588 defeat of Spanish Armada (e.g. commander Sir Francis Drake - Golden Hind - circumnavigated), growing patriotism, expand British trade into Spanish colonies, English settlers colonised America; richness of poetry and Drama
			§ Shakespeare (1564-1616 Sratford-Upon-Avon; midsummer nights dream, hamlet, macbeth, R+J; once more unto the breach (Henry V), to be or not to be (hamlet), rose by any other name (r+j), all the worlds a stage (as you like it, darling buds of may))
		○ Eliz died 1603, heir was cousin James VI of Scotland -> King James I of England,Wales, Ireland (Scotland separate country) -> King James Bible, used in protestant churches
	- Reformation in Scotland; Mary, Queen of Scots
		○ 1560 Protestant Scottish Parliament abolished authority of Pope in Scotland and illegaliszed RC services; formed Protestant Church of Scotland
		○ Mary, Queen of Scots was a catholic, became queen at 1 week old when father died, spent some childhood in France , returned to Scotland and husband was murdered; she was suspected of involvement and fled to England giving her throne to Protestant son Jamves VI, seeking Elizabeth I's (cousin) help; Eliabeth imprisoned her for 20 years and executed her
	- Ireland
		○ During this period Ireland ~ Catholic; Henry VII + VIII extended English country outside Pale, Henry VIII "King of Ireland" introducing Engish laws, local leaders o follow Lord Lieutentnats in Dublin
		○ During Eliz I / James I, irish opposed rule by protestant engl govt; English encouraged Scottish / English Protestants to settle in Ulster (nothern Ireland) taking land from Catholic landowners (settlements "plantations")
	- James I / Charles I (son) believed divine right of kings, Charles I ruled 11 yrs w/o parliament but recalled b/c of trouble in Scotland (1640 for funds)
		○ Charles I wanted worship of CoE to include ceremony, introduced revised Prayer Book, imposed on Presbyterian Church in Scotland wich led to Scotland invading England 
		○ Similar rebellin in Ireland (RC vs Puritan), parliament demanded army control, but Charles I entered HoC and tried to arrest 5 parliamentary leaders (but were warned/absent)
		○ Civil war b/w king (Cavaliers) + parliament (Roundheads) began in 1642 
			§ King's army defeated @ Battles of Marston Moor & Naseby, Charles held prisoner by army, unwilling to agree, executed in 1649
			§ England decalred itself the Commonwealth, a republic, w/o a monarch - army was in control - general Oliver Cromwell sent to Ireland to establish auth of Engl Parliament
			§ Scots had not agreed to Charles' execution and named son Charles II to be king of Scotland, who led army into England (defeated by Cromwell in Battles of Dunbar and Worcester). Charles II escaped after hiking in oak tree and fled to Europe
			§ Cromwell named Lord Protector and ruled until 1658 death, son Richard followed but could not control army/govt
	- Restoration(of the Monarchy)- May 1660 Parliament invited Charles II to come back from Netherlands exile -> King Charles II of EWSI, Church of England again became official church, keeping Puritans/RC out of power 
		○ major outbreak of Plague in 1665, thousands died
		○ 1666 major fire destroyed st pauls, rebuit by Sir Christopher Wren, events written about by Samuel Pepys
		○ 1679 Habeus Corpus Act - everyone right to hearting, can not be held unlawfully
		○ Royal Society formed under Charles II, oldest scientific society in world (e.g. Sir Edmund Halley, Isaac Newton 1643-1727  Cambridge )
	- Charles II no legit children, died 1685 brother James (RC) bcame King James II in EWI and King James VII of Scotland who allowed RC to be officers - two protestant daughters then catholic son…
	- Glorious Revolution
		○ James II eldest Mary married to cousin William of Orange, protestant ruler of Netherlands
		○ 1688 William invaded England for protestants; James fled to France, William -> King William III (II in scotland) and jointly ruled with Mary -- no fighting, guaranteed power of Parliament
		○ James II invaved Ireland with help of France but was defeated by illiam at Battle of Boyne in Ireland in 1690, James fled back to France, many restrictions put on RC in Ireland
		○ Scottish support for James defeated at Killiecrankie, scottish clans forced to acept William as king -- MacDonalds of Glencoe were late and were all killed
		○ James' supporters "Jacobites"
		
	- Constitutional Monarch - Declaration of Rights @ Coronation of William + Mary
	- 1689 Bill of Rights (Parliament, limit of King's power, king/queen must be protestant, new parliament every 3 years [later 7, now 5], monarch ask annually to renew military funding]
		○ Whigs and Tories (modern conservatives)
		○ 1695 newspapers operate w/o govt license 
		○ Ministers more important afer William III
		○ Pocket borough - control by single wealthy family
		○ Rotten borough - hardly any voters
	- 1656 first jews to settle in Britain since m/e
	- 1680-1720 Huguenot refugees from France (Protestants, science/bank/crafts)
	- 1707 Act of Treaty of Union in Scotland - Queen Anne no children, creating Kingdom of Great Britain - Scotland kept own legal/education system + Presbyterian Church
	- 1714 - Queen Anne died, Parliament chose George I (German) to be next king, Annes nearest protestant relative, most impt minister was Prime Minister 
	- 1745 rebellion, another attempt to have Stuart replace George II. Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie), grandson of James II landed in Scotland and raised army, defeated by George II army at Battle of Culloden in 1746. Charles escaped back to Europe
	- Highland Clearances - scottish landlord destroyed invidiaul farms, evictions very cmmon in early 19th century
	- Enlightenment - politics, philosophy, science , Adam Smith, David Hume, James Watt (steam power), own political/religious beliefs
	- Indiustrial Revolution 18th and 19thh century, coal, mining, steam power, Bssemer process (mass production of steel), canals, working conditions poor, increased colonialisation - James Cook in Australia, Canada, East India Company, southern Africa, sugar and tobacco NA/WI
	- Slave trade - illegal w/I Britan but fully established overseas 
		○ Quakers first anti-slavery group in 1700s; William Wilberforce evangelical Christian played role in law
		○ 1807 illegal to trade slaves in british ships or ports
		○ 1833 Emancipation Act abolished slavery throughout the British Empire
		○ After 1833 2 million indian/chinese workers were employed to replace slaves
	- 1776/1783 American Independence declared / recognised
	- 1789 French Revolution, Napoleon declared war on France, 
		○ British navy beat French/Spanish fleets at Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 (Admiral Nelson, killed in battle, HMS Victory is in Portsmouth)
		○ 1815 French Wars Ended w/ Napoleon defeat by Duke of Wellington at Battle of Waterloo (Duke -> Iron Duke, Prime Minister)
	- 1801 Ireland unified with England, Scotland, Wales - Act of Union of 1800 -> Union Jack (St George, England; Andrew/Scotland; Patrick/Ireland) + Welsh Flat w/ Dragon 
	- Victorian Age (Queen Victoria 18 yrs old, 1837-1901) - longest of any monarch - increased power/influence abroad, middle class grew
		○ British Empire -> India, Australia, parts of Africa, worlds largest and 400+ mm people
		○ 1853-1913 13mm+ citizens left
		○ 1870-1914 120k Russian/Polish Jews came (east end London, Manchester, Leeds)
	- 1846 Repeal of Corn Laws that had prevented import of cheap grain, working conditions improved, women/children work max 10 hours per day, transport improved, 
	- George & Robert Stephenson pioneered Railway Engine
	- 50% world's iron, coal, cotton
	- 1851 Great Exhibition Hyde Park in Crystal Palace 
	- 1853-1856 Crimean War (with Turkey, France against Russia) first w/ news + photographs, Victoria Cross for valour by soldiers
	- Ireland 19th Century - 2/3 still farming, potato famine mid 1800s; 500k died, 1.5m left -> US, England
	- Irish Nationalist movement strong in 19th century - Fenians favor complete independence; Charles Stuart Parnell advocated Home Rule (in UK but own Parliament)
	- 1832 Reform Act, increased number able to vote (abolished boroughs) - Campaigners (Chartists) petitioned for more voting
	- 1867 Another Reform Act, but still majority of men couldn’t vote 
	- Until 1870 womens earnings, etc bbelonged to men (1870/1882 gave right to keep)
	- 1899-1902 Boer War, in South Africa against settlers from Netherlands (boers), death/disease brought empire into question
	- 1913 British promised Home Rule for Ireland  -1916 Easter Rising by Protestants in North; leaders executed; 1921 peace treaty signeg making Ireland 2 countries [6 counties Northern Ireland , and Irish Free State (1949 free state)
	- 1st World War 1914-1918
		○ 28 June 1914 Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated 
		○ Allied - UK (+Empire), France, Russia, Japan, Belgium, Serbia; later Greece, Italy, Romania, US; 40k indians killed
		○ Central Powers - Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria
		○ >2mm british casualties; 60k just on British Attack on the Somme in July 1916
	- 1920s/30s great depression - auto/aviation developed, car ownership 1mm->2mm, new writers Graham Greene, Evelyn Waught, economist Keys, BBC started radio in 1922 and TV in 1936
	- WW2 - Hitler invaded Poland in 1939; BR/FR declared war; Axis DE/IT/JP vs UK/FR/PO/AUS/NZ/CAD/SA; 
		○ Hitler followed invasion of poland by takign control of belgium then netherlands ; 1940 germans adv through France 
		○ Dunkirk - 300k aved from French beaches 
		○ Britain won crucial air Battle of Britain summer of 1940 - planes Spitfire & Hurricane, but bombing continued (Blitz)
	- 1945 labour govt elected (Clement Attlee), intro welfare state in Beveridge Report
		○ NHS by Aneurin Bevin 1948 
		○ Socil security
	- 1947 independence to India, Pakistan, Ceylon/Sri Lanka, + 6 others
	- Other countries in Pacific and Caribb indep over next 20 years  - 1951-1964 conservative govt, PM Harold Macmillan "wind of change" speech on decolonisation
	- Swinging Sixties - growth in fashion, cinema, pop music - Beatles, Rolling Stones - liberalisation of divorce/abortion - Britan/France developed concorde,, new laws for equal female pay and prevent gender discrimination
	- 20th century british inventions - TV (Scotsman John Baird), Radar (Scotsman Robert Watson-Watt, 1935), Jodrell Bank (Cheshire) telescope stil in use, Turing machine (Alan Turing), insulin (Scottish John Macleod), DNA (London unis + Cambridge, Francis Crick), jet engine (Frank Whittle), hovercraft (Chris Cockerell), Concorde, Harrier jet, ATM (James goodfellow), IVF (Robert Edwards), sheep cloning (keith campbell, wilmot), MRI (Peter Mansfield), WWW (TBL), 
	- 1970s inflation, balance of pmt issues, unrest in northern ireland
	- 1957 - Euro Econ Community formed, UK joined 1973
	- 1979-1997 conservative government - privatisation of nationalised industries and imposd legal controls, deregulation,
	- 1982 Argentine invaded Falkland Islands
	- Hatcher 1st woman PM (1979)
	- Labour 1997-2010 (Tony  Blair), introduced Scotish Parliament & Welsh Assembly 
	- 2010+ Coalition government 

	- Robert Burns 1759-96, The Bard, Scottish Poet, Auld Lang Syne for New Year 
	- Richard Arkwright (1732-92), Barber, Textiles, Carding Machine, Horse driven mill, steam engine
	- Sake Dean Mahomet (1759-1851), Bengal region India, Bengal Army, Britain 1782, moved to Ireland and eloped Irish girl Jane Daly in 1786. Opened Hindoostane Coffee House in George Street, London. 1st Curry house. Also introduced shampooing
	- Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-59) from Portsmouth, engineer, made Great Western Railway (Paddington to Wales), bridges/tunnels
	- Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) born Italy to English parents, nurse in germany at 31, 1854 went to Turkey for military hospitals in Crimean war, 1860 est Nightingale Training School for nurses at St Thomas Hospital in London
	- Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928) Manchester, Women's Franchise League in 1889, 1903 Womens Social & Political Union, civil disobedience (Suffragettes)
		○ 1918 Women > 30 voting rights, to stand for parliament
		○ 1928 women right to vote at 21, same as men
	- Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) born India, books/poetry set in India/UK; If, Just So Stories, Jungle Book
	- Winston Churchill 1874-1965 - PM in 1940, lose election in 1945 but returned as PM in 1951, 2002 voted greatest briton of all time
	- Alexander Fleming 1881-1955 , born Scotland , doctor, researching flu and discovered penicilin 1928,, developed into drug by Howard Florey and Ernst Chain - nobel prize 1945
	- Clement Attlee - gave up barrister for social work in E Ldn, became Labour MP, Churchill's Deputy PM and then PM for Labour in 1945 election, nationalised coal/steel, created NHS, implemented stronger wellfare state 
	- William Beveridge - beveridge report, NHS, welfare state
	- RA Butler - conservative MP, responsible for education 1941, Education Act 1944 (Butler Act) - free 2nd'ary education in England/Wales 
	- Dylan Thomas - Welsh poet/writer, Under Milk Wood, Do Not Go Gentle Into  That Good Night, porn Swansea, 
	- Marry Peters - olympic gold in pentathlon 1972, dame of the british empire
	- Ronald Dahl - born Wales, Norwegian parents, RAF in WW2, books and short stories, Charlie and Choc Factory, Georg's Marvellous Medicine
	
	
	
		

	- Demographics, etc
		○ 53 member states of commonwealth
		○ Swear and affirm loyalty to the queen
		○ 21% Non religious
		○ 10% parent/grandparent born outside UK
		○ Population ~ 65mm (England 84%; Scotland 8%; Wales 5%; N Ire 3%]
		○ Religion 70% Christian, 21% None, 4% Muslim, 2% Hindu, 1% Sikh, Jewish/Buddhist < 0.5%, 2% Other; Monarch is head of Church of England (Protestant, aka Anglican and Episcopal), spiritual leader is called Archbishop of Canterbury
			§ Scotland national Curch is called Church of Scotland (Presbyterian) governed by ministers/elders; chairperson of GA is the Moderator, appointed for one year 
			§ DPGA Patron saint days
				□ 1 March: St David’s Day, Wales 
				□ 17 March: St Patrick’s Day, Northern Ireland 
				□ 23 April: St George’s Day, England 
				□ 30 November: St Andrew’s Day, Scotland.
				
			§ Religious festivals
				□ Diwali october/nov, 5 days, festival of lights, hindus/sikhs, celebration in leicester
				□ Eid al-Fitr, end ramadan
				□ Eid ul adha, propher Ibrahim
				□ Vaisakhi/Baisakhi, Sikh, 14 apr
		○ Bonfire Night 5 Nov - Guy Fawkes
		○ Remembrance Day 11 Nov  / Cenotaph 
		○ UK Olympics 1908, 1948, 2012 
	- UK Sports:
		○ Roger Bannister, <4' mile
		○ Jackie Steward, scottish F1 champ 3x
		○ Bobby Moore, english football world cup 1966 capin
		○ Ian Botham, english cricket captain
		○ Jayne Torvil & Christopher Dean - 84 gold ice dancing
		○ Steve Redgrave - 5x olympic rowing golds
		○ Baroness tani grey thompson, 16 paralympic medeals, 
		○ David Weir - paralympic
		○ Dame Kelly Holmes, gold running 
		○ Dame Ellen MacArthur, yacht, 2004 fastest singlehanded world sail
		○ Chris Hoy, scottish cyclist, 6 gold, 1 silver, 11 world championship
		○ Wiggo, Mo, andy murray
		○ Jessica Ennis, 2012 gold heptathhlon
		○ Ellie simmonds, swimming 2008/2012 gold
	- 1966 world cup win (hosted inUK)
	- Rugby: Six Nations(ESWI+FR+IT), Super League
	- Horse Racing: Ascot (Berkshire), Grand National at Aintree (Liverpoool), Scottish Grand Ntlll (Ayr), Museum in Newmarket (Suffolk)
	- Tennis - 1st club founded Leamington Spa 1872; Wimbledon only grand slam on grass, oldest tourney in world
	- Sailing - Sir Francis Chichester (1st single-handled around world in 1966/7) then Robin Knox-Johnston w/o stopping; most famous event is Cowes
	- British F1 winners Damon Hill, Lewis Hamilton, Jenson Button
	- Skiing - 5 centers in Scotland,

	- Music
		○ Proms - 8wk summer orchestral classic, by BBC since 1927, several venus including royal albert hall
		○ Mercury prize each september for best UK/ireland album
		○ Brit Awards - annual event for various music awards
			§ Henry Purcell - organist at Westminster Abbey
			§ George Grederick Handel - german born, UK citizen 1727 - Water Music for George I, Music for Royal Fireworks for George II, Messiah (sung at Easer)
			§ Gustav Holst - The Planets, Jupiter / I vow o thee my country
			§ Sir Edward Elgar - Pomp and Circumstance Marches
			§ Ralph Vaughan Wiliams - orchestras/choirs, influenced by english folk music
			§ Sir William walton - coronation marches fo george vi / eliz II - Façade, Belshazzars Feast
			§ Benjamin Britten - operas, Peter Grimes, Billy Budd, A young persons guide to the orchestra (based on purchell), founded Aldeburgh festival (suffolk)
			§ National Eisteddfod of Wals annual cultural festival - music, dance, art, performances, largely in welsh 
		
	- Theatre
		○ Mousetrap by Dame Agatha Christie running since 1952 in west end / theatreland
		○ Gilbert & Sullivan - comic operas - HMS Pinafore, Pirates of Penzance, The Mikado
		○ Andrew Lloyd Weber - music for shows including JC Superstar, Evita, Cats, PofOpera
		○ Pantomime around Christmas time - fairy stories, 
		○ Edinburge / Fringe Fest - mainly theatre/comedy
		○ Laurence Olivier Awards - annually in London awards for thetre, L.O. known for roles in Shakespeare plays
	- Art
		○ Many religious art lost after Protestant Reformation
		○ Turner Prize (est 1984) for contemporary art - winners incl Damien Hirst, Richard Wright
			§ Thomas Gainsborough - portrait, country/garden sceney
			§ David Allan - Scottish portraits, Origin of Painting
			§ Josteph Turner - landscape painter in modern style
			§ John Constable - landscapes, Dedham Vale (Suffolk-Essex border)
			§ Pre-Raphaelites - group of artists in H2 19th cty, bright colours, religious, Holman Hunt, Danta Rossetti, Sir John Millais
			§ Sir John Lavery - N Ire portraits, work included royal family
			§ Henry Moore - english sculptor/artist
			§ John Petts - welsh, engravings, stained glas
			§ Lucian Freud - germany born, portraits
			§ David Hockney - pop art of 60s
		○ 
	- Architecture
		○ M/E catherals - Durham, Lincoln, Canterury, Salisbury
		○ White Tower in TofLondon - Norman castle keep (built on order of William the Conq)
		○ 17th cty classical - Inigo Jones designed Queen's House (Greenwich) and Whitehall's banqueting house
		○ 18th cty simpler - Robert Adams (scottish) - inside Dumfries house, influenced royal crescent (Bath)
		○ 19th cty gothic - parliament, st pancras
		○ 20th cty Sir Edward Lutyens - cenotaph in whitehall (site of remembrance day)
		○ Modern - Sir Normal Foster, Lord Richard Rogers, Dame Zada Hadid
		○ Gertrude Jekyll / Edwin Lutyens gardens around Lancelot Brown houses -> Chelsea Flower Show
	- Fashion
		○ Thomas Chippendale (18th cty furniture),
		○ Clareice Cliff (art deco certamics)
		○ Sir Terence Conran (20th cty interiors)
		○ Mary Quant, Alex McQueen, Vivienne Westwood
	- Literature
		○ Nobel Price -Sir William Golding (novels), Seamus Heaney (novelist), Harold Pinter (playwright)
		○ Man Booker Prize (est 1968)- awarded annually for fiction novel by commonwealth/ireland/zimbabwe author, winners incl Ian McEwan, Hilary Mantel, Juian Barnes
			§ JRR Tolkien - LotR
			§ Jane Austen - novelist, Pride & Prejudice, Sense & Sensibility
			§ Charles Dickens - Oliver Twist, Great Expectations, Scrooge
			§ Robert Louis Stevenson - Treasure Island, Kidnapped, Dr Jekyll & Mr Hyde
			§ Thomas Hardy - Far from the Madding Crowd, Jude the Obscure
			§ Sir Arthur Conan Doyle - scottish dr and writer, Sherlock Holme
			§ Evelyn Waugh - Decline and Fall, Scoop, satriees, Bridgeshead Revisited
			§ Sir Kingsley Amis - Lucky Jim, novels/poetry
			§ Graham Greene - novels, Heart of the Matter, Honorary Consul, Brighton Rock, Our Man in Havana
			§ JK Rowling - Harry Poetter
	- British Poets
		○ A-S poem Beowulf 
		○ Chaucer's Canterbury Tales
		○ Jon Milton - sonnet Paradise Lost - spread protestantism
		○ William Wordsworth - nature inspired
		○ Sir Walter Scott - scotland
		○ 19th cty - William Blake, John Keats, Lord Byron, Percy Shelly, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Robert & Elizabeth Browning
		○ WW1 - Wilfred Own, Siegfried Sassoon
		○ Modern - John Masefield, Sir John Betjeman and Ted Hughes, Sir Walter de la Mare 
		○ Poet's Corner - Westminster Abbey 
	- Leisure
		○ Rent additional gardening land - an allotment
		○ England (rose), Scotland (thistle), Wales (daffodil), N Ire (shamrock)
		○ England (roast beef), Wales (welsh cakes), Scotland (haggis), N Ire (Ulster fry)
		○ 1896 first public film shown
		○ James Bond + Harry Potter highest grossing film franchise
		○ Nick Park - four oscars for Wallace and Gromic
		○ 1840's Punch first published 
		○ TV license fine 1k; free over 75, 50% discount for blind people, pays for BBC, govt funded but indep
		○ 18 age drinking age, 16 with an adult
		○ 18 age for betting shops
		○ 16 age for lottery tix
		○ 15 national parks in ESW
	- Politics
		○ Constitutional monarchy, parliamentary democracy
		○ 1830s/40s Chartists pushed for more voting
		○ 1918 women > 30 vote, 1928 all woman, 1969 voting age from 21 to 18
		○ 53 commonealth member states
		○ 2012 diamond jubilee, queen married to prince philip / duke of edinburgh, son prince charles 
		○ HoL peers hereditary until 1958 appt by PM/Monarch - lost automatic right to attend in 1999
		○ Speaker chairs HoC debate, neutral but is also an MP, chosen by secret ballot 
		○ MP elected at least every 5 years, by-election if death/resign, first past the post 
		○ EUR Parliament also every 5 years, proportional representation
		○ British constitution not written down in any single document 
		○ Scotland/wales/N Ire "devolved governments" - can legislate on certain issues
		○ Queen annual speech summarises govt policies for year ahead
		○ Queen rec's fgn ambassadors, entertains heads of state
		○ Nat'l anthem - god save the queen
		○ HoC more impt - all demo elect
		○ Contact MP by letter/telephone at constituency office or office in HoC
		○ PM appoints cabinet (about 20 senior MPs), meet weekly
			§ Exchequer - economy
			§ Home secretary - crime, police, immigraration
			§ Foreign secretary - relationships w/ fgn countries
			§ Others (State) - education, health, defense
		○ Opposition - 2nd largest party, shadow cabinet, PM questions weekly
		○ Parliament proceedings - Hansard, pubished official reports 
			§ Can visit, or queue, to listen to proceedings
		○ Fully democratic since 1928, register to ote local council electoral reg office, register sent annually to homes
			§ N Ire land - individual registration
		○ London 33 local authorities
		○ Devolved admins (since 1997) - welsh + scottish parliament since 1999, also one in N Ire but has been suspended - local/public svcs like education
		○ Welsh govertnment - Cardiff
			§ 60 assembly members (Ams), elections every 4 years, porportional rep, - education/health/housing
		○ Scottish government - Edinburgh
			§ 129 members (MSPs)
		○ N Ireland
			§ Est 1922, then 1998, 108 elected MLAs 
	- Europe
		○ EEC est. 1957 w 6 countries (Treaty of Rome), UK member in 1973
		○ Now 28 EU states
		○ EU law directives, regulations, framework decisions
		○ "Council of Europe" - 47 members - protection/promotion of Human rights - European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms - UK first to sign in 1950
		○ United Nations > 190 members, set up ater WW2, 15 members security council, UK one of 5 perm
	- Nov 2012 PCC (police and crime commissioners) elected in england + wales - they appoint chief constable
	- Enforcement
		○ Police supppoted by police community support offics (PCSOs)
		○ Public can complain at police station or writing to chief constable, or to IPCC (E/W), PC (Scotland), Police Ombudsman
		○ England, Wales, N Ire - minor cases in Magistrates Court, serious offences in Crown Court, 12 in jury; youth court
		○ Scotland - minor cases in Justice of the Peace Court, serious officenses in Sheriff Court , 15 in jury; "childrens hearing sytem"
		○ Jury decides guilt, Judge decides penalty
		○ Small claims 5k in england/wales, 3k in scotland/N.ire
	- Habeuas Corpus Act and Bill of Rights of 1689
	- Human Rights Act of 1998 incorporated EC on HR into UK law 
	- Forced Marriage Protection Orders introduced E/W/NI in 2008 via Forced Marriage Civil Protection Act (2007), scotland 2011
	- National Insurance -> Pension, NHS; number by DWP
	- MOT if car over 3 yrs old